Author: Edna Hill

What Are The Disadvantages of Concrete

Concrete is an artificial stone-like material used widely for different construction projects. It is becoming popular in almost every city and rural area. Those bridges, roads, highways, skyscrapers, and properties that we see everywhere are most likely made up of concrete. Although concrete is known to be cost-effective due to its long-lasting strength, there are also limitations associated with it. 

Below is the list of disadvantages that comes with using concrete as a building material. 

Low Tensile Strength 

Although concrete are highly compressed in structure, it exhibits a low tensile strength. Compression and tensile strength are different. Tensile strength pertains to the capacity of a certain material to resist breaking down under extreme pressure, while compression is the ability to withstand heavy weights and forces. Normally, the tensile strength of concrete is 1/10th of its compressive strength. 

Low Durability

Concretes have a low level of durability, which is the ability of a certain material to withstand impact energy or force. Compared to other materials like steel, concrete has significantly low toughness. Concrete’s toughness is only 1-2% of steel. 

Low Specific Strength 

Specific strength refers to the ratio of strength to density. It is controlled by decreasing the density and increasing the strength. It means that the denser or thicker the material, the less strength it carries. The specific strength of a typical concrete is just half of steel. Having a variation of concretes like lightweight concrete & high-strength concrete can lessen this limitation. 

Formwork is Inevitable 

Since fresh concrete is liquid or almost in a liquid form, the formwork is required to mold it in shape and support its weight. But the formwork is quite expensive to acquire and install. Its installation is also labor-intensive and time-consuming. 

Partially Brittle Material 

There are three major modes of failure of materials – quasi-brittle failure, ductile failure, and brittle. Glass and mild steel are the typical samples of materials that fall under the brittle and ductile failure categories. Brittle materials fail the onset of tension or force. Since concretes show a strain-softening characteristic, they are considered partially or quasi-brittle materials. 

These kinds of materials like concrete will go through little deformations first before complete failure or breakdown. The deformation serves as a warning. The less deformation means lesser risk for failure. Additionally, plain concretes have low fracture toughness. This is one of the major disadvantages of plain concrete. That is why concretes are usually incorporated in steel to have some tension resistant properties, while it takes the compression loads effectively. Therefore, reinforced concrete is a second-generation concrete that has more stability and strength as wire mesh or steel bars are embedded in it. 

Long Curing Time

Most of the time concrete achieves the target compressive strength in 28 days after the casting and curing process. The full-strength development needs the right ambient temperature that is controlled over a month. This is quite time consuming, but it can be remedied by undergoing a process of microwave curing or steam curing through admixtures. 

Needs Strict Quality Control 

Concrete demands strict quality control during the process of mixing, casting, and curing. Every step of the process needs a high level of precision and efficiency. The workers also need to be highly skilled and trained to follow the right processes. A little mistake on the number of materials added or on the mixing of materials could greatly affect the overall quality of the concrete. If quality control is not implemented among workers, concrete is susceptible to poor strength and performance issues.

Working with Cracks 

Concrete easily cracks when the tensile stress exceeds the tensile strength of it. Plain concretes are very susceptible to cracking during high tension occurrence. Shrinkage is the primary cause of cracking in concretes. When the concrete solidifies and dries, it shrinks. This is caused by the evaporation of excess water poured out during the mixing process. This shrinkage causes forces in the concrete that can induce the slab to crack. 

Lacks Ductility 

Although concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world, it still lacks ductility. Ductility is characterized by the capacity of the material to be hammered out thin or undergo certain changes of form without breaking down. In short, it is a state of malleability or flexibility. Concrete is highly dependent on detailed steel reinforcing bar or rebar cages to get some tensile strength and confinement features in order to act in a ductile manner. 

How Thick Should a Concrete Driveway Be

If you have a car and you are about to construct a house, providing space for a concrete driveway is important aside from the garage. Driveways are commonly seen in a standard house that has a much bigger space in front. If you have a lot of space and a total fancy, you can definitely make a circular driveway. Having a fountain at the center could be fun to look at as well. 

Before we start, let’s first define concrete driveway. Basically, a concrete driveway is still part of your private property. It is a road in front of a house were initial parking is done or in front of a garage located simply as a road. Driveways are simple and easy to make. It is just a concrete slab that smoothens. It may take decades before you are obliged to repair it. a driveway can have designs as well, depending on what do you wanted to have.  

The thickness of the concrete driveway should be four to five inches, the thickness is important because it will determine the capacity of the structure. The edges should be one to two inches for structural support. The concrete that is used for this must be reinforcement concrete because it has properties that are resistant to tensions that may occur because of the friction and weight that a car would give to your slab.

Standard Size

Proceeding, a standard vehicle like the one with four-seaters should have at least eight to nine feet in width and fifteen to twenty feet for like double-width if you have more than one car or if you just want to the counterclockwise way on the front of your house. Ideally speaking, a concrete driveway must be wider as possible.

Heavy Vehicle

Continuing, if in any case that you have a van as a vehicle or much heavier than that, the thickness should have an extra one to two inches for much strong support. That is supposedly to prevent cracking that may result in much more danger in the future. In width, provide much wider space rather than the standard size.

Walkway

Walkways are important, of course! It is a personal spot where you will walk and when you are going outside of your car. If the space between your car and the walls are stiff, then expect that your car door might have scratches. So, to avoid that, provide three to four inches depending on the size of your car door. Having that wide space also helps a woman to go outside safely without worrying that they may have ankle injury because of stiff space and heels.

 To make a concrete driveway, you first need to make a plan and consider the rules that you may need. It is important to consider the property that you have. Do not dominate the road in front of you that is supposed to be a way for all the cars in your neighborhood. The plan also includes the size and route of your driveway. A design is good as well. After the plan, determine the concrete that is necessary to have in your project, prepare and buy all the tools needed. Apply a clay for the stability of the surface and after you prepare the form, put stones or any materials that are thick enough to fill the slopes in the area. Compact it with a device, add a reinforcing steel, and pour the concrete. Flatten the slab and do the usual things that are needed to be done for a normal concrete pouring and curing task.

A driveway may not be necessary for all the houses in the world but surely, a family or a household that has a car needs it. consider all the rules and options before doing so. In the end, a driveway is a safe place for your car. 

The Best Degreaser for Concrete

Water alone does not have much ability to remove oils since they do not mix. In this case, way back hundred of years ago, soap is invented. Soap has fatty acids that make the dirt especially oils to be cleaned by water. Soap helps the water to rinse all the grease more easily.

There are many types and kinds of soaps that you can choose from. Some soaps are made for specific dirt to be cleaned on. To determine what cleaner does the dirt need to be fully removed, it is important to know how tough it is and check what level of chemicals do you need. For example, a food stain can be removed by typical soap and scrub. However, there are stains and dirt that needs a high-resolution cleaner to be removed.

In a concrete setting, removing grease is one of the hardest things to do. It took a lot of energy for a stain to be removed. Because concrete is a tough surface to clean, there are cleaners that are made and chemically combined to solve your problem. To add some little help, here’s a list of concrete cleaners that you should consider in finding the soap that could work on your surface.

Before we jump to hard cleaners, of course, there is a mild cleaner that is designated for cleaning mild stains which can be usually found inside our house. May it be on floor tiles or any much smoother surface. pH-Neutral Cleaners is one of the most known mild cleaners. Basically, this cleaner can remove grease that is still not embedded on the surface and can still be wiped out. 

In more complex dirt that needs acid, acidic cleaners can be used. This is a chemical that can remove dirt and is applied directly to the contaminated area. These are ready-to-use formulations. Scrubbing might be needed to remove the excess statins upon applications. After pouring it on the concrete and removing the dirt, make sure to rinse it with clean water because since it is acid, it can be harmful. 

An oily grease can be hard to remove; may sometimes put us on frustration for doing all the best that we can yet still be disappointed with the result. 

Alkaline cleaners which are known as concrete degreaser are the strongest cleaner that can be used for removing oil, the grease of car or any other hydrocarbon-based stains that is marked on concrete. Alkaline cleaners are also used to neutralize the pH of concrete after using acid cleaners. The alkaline cleaner is diluted with water and is applied typically for deep and older stains. You must also leave it for a while before rinsing it to take effect.  Some dirt does not remove easily after one application. That is why it is okay to apply more. Remove the residue with water. 

Since organic chemistry has been used for making cleaners, oxidation cleaner is produced.

Oxidation cleaner is formulated to break down soils like a starch-based stain. This dirt remover is highly recommended for eliminating bad odor as well. This amazing cleaner has genetically engineered bacteria that feed on oil, grease, and hydrocarbon. It does not require water to activate and does not have residue to wash away.

In choosing cleaner, make sure to know what is applicable for that dirt to avoid waste and also to make your cleaning much easier. All of the given above are usable and effective. I hope you found the best cleaner that suits your general cleaning.

What is a Split System Air Conditioner

Summertime is a time of the year when everyone wants to come home and feel the refreshing effect of having an air conditioner that cools every corner of the house. Having an air conditioning system at home is beneficial in improving comfort and giving many health benefits for the whole family. While the central airconditioning system is quite expensive and window units create a lot of unwanted noise, a split system air conditioner is ideal if you want an affordable and efficient way to cool air in your home. Plus, it doesn’t come with a whirring sound that could interrupt your work or sleep. 

Provided that here are a variety of airconditioning systems available in the market- the central air conditioner which is expensive and not practical for small, cozy homes, and the window units that are too bulky and noisy, the split system air conditioner is the perfect and practical choice for homeowners and businesses who wants to enjoy cool temperature without going beyond their budget. 

A split type is one of the most popular kinds of air conditioning systems. In this article, we will explain what is the split system AC, how it works, and the advantages of using it. 

Get to know a split system air conditioner 

A split air conditioner includes two main parts namely a compressor which is located outside, and an inside air outlet unit. The outdoor unit which is usually the louder and larger part is installed on or near the enclosed space that you want to cool. This unit contains the compressor, condenser coil, and the capillary tubing or expansion coil. While the indoor unit which is the lighter and the quieter unit holds the cooling coil, an air filter, and a long blower. 

Not like other systems that need a sequence of ductwork connected throughout the ceiling, split air conditioners depend on a set of piping and electrical cables to connect both outdoor and indoor air unit. They refer to these connections as a ductless mini-split air conditioner installation. Refrigerant is distributed through the copper pipes that move through the system in order to generate either heat or cool air. 

Modern designs of a split system air conditioning work with remote control. These are also being fitted with a heating pump facility to ensure the system can be used all year round for optimum room temperature and maximum comfort. Some system units have built-in timers and different controls that allow the user to personalize the experience. 

A single and a multi-split system

A single split system has only one indoor unit while a multi-split system has multiple indoor units that may be installed in different rooms. The multi-system is ideal for properties that need air conditioning in more than one area, or for houses or buildings that have more than one level. 

Benefits of a split air conditioning system

This kind of air conditioner system can be beneficial for a number of reasons, both for residential and commercial use:

Quiet performance

This split system allows you to have a good night’s sleep or to concentrate on your current work or project since the indoor unit is running quietly while keeping your room cool. The noisiest parts of the air conditioner such as the fan and the condenser are situated in the outdoor unit. In fact, it is possible to install the outside condensers several feet away from the room so that its buzzing sound will not disturb anyone in the house. 

Places that demand as little noise as possible such as libraries, classrooms, offices, bedrooms, and boardrooms could benefit from using this AC type.  

Ease of installation 

Setting up the unit is straightforward as there is no ductwork needed to install. If you opt to place your outdoor unit far from the house, it is possible to do that. In fact, you can even install the outdoor unit 100 feet away from the indoor. You just need a small space through the wall to let the copper tubing and the control wing pass. You may even place your outdoor unit on the flat section of your roof. Since there’s a little to no house modification needed to install the unit, this makes it very cost-efficient. 

Ease of operation 

You can operate the unit by using remote control in the comfort of your bed. The system is also very efficient and quick in cooling or heating your room. 

Cost-effectiveness

The indoor unit in your home has the ability to distribute air efficiently, saving on energy and money. It also provides the option of supporting electricity consumption using solar power. Thus, very convenient for people with homes equipped with solar panels. 

Ease of maintenance 

The filters are washable and only need periodic routine cleaning. The filters can be removed easily. Thus, you don’t have to call an expert in order to clean and maintain it. Also, the outdoor unit is designed in a way that is very easy to open if repair or maintenance is needed. 

Air Purification

Most split system models come with air purification feature that works to purify the air entering your house so that allergens and dust cannot circulate inside. This highlights its health-boosting benefit as it eliminates the particles that may cause headaches, eye irritation, asthma, or allergies. 

The split system air conditioner is a worthy investment

Although similar to a traditional HVAC system, this split AC system is proven to be a cost-efficient choice for homes that do not have existing ductwork. It enhances the comfort of your home while keeping the monthly utility bills lower. 

How Do You Attach Something to Concrete Without Drilling

If you are fixing your concrete wall and would love to attach wood in it but you don’t have a drill, there’s another way! There are two methods that can be considered in attaching wood and concrete without the presence of a drill. They are also easy to do. So now, in this article, I will show you the things needed, its advantages and disadvantages, and also, the guidelines on how to use it.  

There are different methods that can be done to attach wood into concrete without using a drill:

  1. Nail

You just need a Sledgehammer and a concrete nail

The first thing that you must do is attach your wood to concrete. Make sure that it is steady to avoid mistakes. 

When hitting the wood and concrete, make sure that it is steady and is not easily moved so the nails won’t crack the concrete and wood.

Tips: it is advisable to use sledgehammer instead of the heavy-duty regular hammer because nails are often made from steel. Using harmer that has steel hardened tips may cause sparks when you hammered it.

There is a device that can be used to quickly finish this task. Air-powered nail guns may help you. Just be knowledgeable and careful about using this to avoid an accident. Though this may also be a good choice, check your concrete first. Not all concrete can bear the power of this device. Cracks may occur if the concrete is too brittle. 

In doing this method, a problem may occur as well. For concrete, cracks may appear from the concrete. The cause may be because you hammered it lousy or you hit the nail in the wrong angle.

If you have a problem with not hitting the nail into concrete hard enough, the possible solution can be using the nail gun. However, that may still depend on how much strength your concrete can bear.

  1. Epoxy glue- made specifically for applying wood to concrete

Since epoxy glue is made specifically for wood, it has a strong capacity to stick with the concrete. Epoxy glue can be used as a construction adhesive and is proven and tested by many.

Make sure that both are dry and clean. Before spreading the glue on the wood, make sure that the dirt, particles, and debris are removed. 

Now, spread the glue and stick the wood and concrete together. Make sure that you put it properly. You do not want to repeat and waste materials, right?

Use a clamp to stick it together until it was completely dry. Of course, you need to put pressure on the wood so it will bond properly on the concrete.

In doing this method, a problem may occur as well. Problems like a slight curve on the board, whereas glue will not stick and may probably be the cause of the whole board to come off.

Of course, in every problem, there is a solution. There are two solutions to this.

First, use a much better adhesive that is made for bonding wood and concrete. 

Second, cut the wood into fragments then stick it. This may also help with making your board lightweight.

  1. Use both nails and glue on concrete

Combining the two methods can be an excellent idea. In doing this, you just have to follow both of the steps.

First, apply the glue and bond it with the concrete.

Second, nail the wood in the concrete. Because of the glue, the wood is much steady, and you will have access to doing it at the right angle. 

That is all that you need to know! It is easy as drilling the only difference is that, this is much more affordable because you won’t have to buy a drill. Just make sure to be careful all the time and of course, know what your concrete can handle to avoid cracks and breaks.

how to fix stucco cracks

How to Fix Stucco Cracks

Cracks in your stuccoed walls will mostly range from 1/16 to 1/8 inch wide. Don’t worry, these are pretty easy to repair; you can even do it yourself. You may also look for its cause to get rid of it. Here is a guide to help you.

Materials

 For this project, you will need a caulking gun, caulk, bucket of water, and a sponge.

Process

Open the tube of caulking by cutting its tip. Make sure that you make the hole as small as possible and at an angle, so the work is easier and cleaner. Then, load the gun and squeeze out some of the caulking to get an idea of how much is coming out. 

Application

Wet the crack and the area around it. Water will help with the application of the caulk and it will make it easier for you to clean up the excess. Then, you may apply a bead of the caulk evenly and generously. Follow the crack and use the angle on the tip to fill it. Be consistent and avoid gaps, so the fracture will seal completely. 

Next, use your finger to spread the caulk into the crack. Make sure to go in different directions to fill it. To easily clean up, make sure you don’t spread it over to the wall. 

Then, use your sponge and use water to clean up the area around the crack. Make sure that the caulking inside the crack will stay. Check if you miss any spots and that the crack is filled. Try to clean up as soon as possible to get a better result. There will still be a little amount of caulking around the crack. You have to get rid of it or you will see a slight difference in color. 

Let the caulking dry. The drying time will depend on the weather, temperature, and the type of caulking that you are using, so be sure to check the instructions. It tends to shrink a little bit, but you will use it to your advantage. 

Texturing

The repair should match the texture of the stuccoed wall to look nicer. You may add the second bead of caulking at practice doing the texture on a scrap piece of wood or cardboard. 

For smooth-textured walls, the method would be easy because you only need to keep reapplying the caulk until it blends naturally. For other textures, you might need to use a brush or sponge and do dabbing motions. Try to experiment which will best match your wall. You may even use a sandpaper for rougher ones.

Color

You need to find a paint that matches your wall for the repair to blend in. Repainting the whole thing is also a choice, so it will look better. It is always up to you to decide. 

Your stuccoed wall will relatively need low maintenance, but as it might be exposed to the weather outside, it is prone to damage. Make sure that you repair them at once to avoid larger problems.

How to Stucco a Wall

How to Stucco a Wall

Appearance matters in many aspects of our lives, for it, affects how people see us. We apply it in many aspects of our life, like ourselves and our homes. Homeowners mostly want to stucco the exterior or interior of their homes to give it a nice texture. It is quite popular as it is a breeze to maintain, but upgrades the house’s look. You might consider having to stucco your walls, ceilings, or others. Here are tips to help you.

Weather

Check the weather forecast for the period that you are planning to do the project. The best is to do it on days with low wind and a temperature of 10°C to 16°C. Do not continue if it is too hot or too cold.

Material

Different ways are for applying stucco on different materials. It may be a stud wall or concrete.

 If you are planning to do it on a plywood, cover it with at least 2 layers of “Grade D” building paper. Make sure to have an air gap to prevent rot, and fasten them with roofing nails. Install casing bead, weep screed at the base, metal lath to the studs, and control joints.

If you are going to apply stucco on concrete, make sure that it is roughly textured and absorbent. Make sure to wet the surface first before applying the first coat.

Process:

Scratch Coat

To mix the scratch coat, use 1 part cement material, 2 1/4 to 4 parts plaster sand, and lime, if you are using Portland cement. Use the same amounts for both stud wall and cement walls. Add enough water to allow you to trowel the mixture. Make sure that it will not sag.

Apply the coat evenly with about 3/8 inch thickness for stud walls, and 1/4 inch thick for concrete. Score it lightly and horizontally. For the stud wall, you have to let it wet cure for 48 hours.

Brown Coat

Mix 1 part cement and 3 to 5 parts sand to make the brown coat. You may apply it after the scratch coat finishes curing. Let it wet cure for 7 days. The amounts are the same for both types of walls. However, for the concrete wall, you may apply it after 4 to 5 hours. Then, allow to wet cure for 48 hours.

Finish Coat

For the finish coat, mix 1 part cement and 1 1/2 to 3 parts sand. You may add a pigment so it is colored or paint over it after it cures for at least 7 days. Apply it about 1/8 inch thick. The same amounts are applied. You may use a texture roller if you are not experienced. 

If you think you have to add texture to improve your home, don’t be afraid to stucco your walls and get the satisfaction you need. It will surely improve the overall look of your home just because of the new texture added by the stucco. Your home will surely leave an impression.

How to Paint Stucco

How to Paint Stucco

Making your homes admirable from the outside and inside is essential for many homeowners. Various materials can give texture to walls and upgrade their look, and one of the most ideal is stucco. It is composed of aggregates, binders, and water, and is mostly for decoration. However, it might not be pretty if it is unmaintained or if you think it needs a new color. To bring back its beauty, you might need to clean and repaint it. Here are some guidelines to help you with that.

Repair

If you notice that your stucco has some cracks or holes, it is better to repair them before repainting. You may use a caulk gun with elastomeric caulk for hairline fractures, while for larger ones, use a concrete patching or thick stucco compounds. Let them dry before doing anything else.

Cleaning

To remove dirt or mold that built up in your stucco, use pressure washing. Set it to a low pressure and use a wide spray tip to avoid damage. Clean it up from top to bottom. Be careful not to hit windows, door frames, or others that may break due to pressure. After that, allow it to dry completely. 

Painting

  1. Buying Paint

You have to choose a suitable type of paint for your stucco, so it will last. A great one is masonry paint, which is especially for house exteriors to keep them from weathering and pollution. It is available in hardware stores or home improvement centers.

  1. Preparation

Masking the parts you do not want to paint is necessary. Line them with painter’s tape, so you can work faster. You may also put a cloth on the ground to avoid drips.

Pour the paint on a container wide enough for a roller. Don’t put too much and place is somewhere near.

  1. Painting Proper

Use a roller to paint the stucco. Glide it back and forth on the surface, and use vertical and horizontal motions for maximum coverage. Then, use a masonry brush to fill in the gaps. It will allow you to have control and avoid mistakes.

  1. Drying

Leave the paint to dry for 2-4 hours. If you are planning to do another coat, do it the next day.

  1. Second Coat (optional)

If you are not satisfied and think you can achieve a bolder color by doing a second coat, than you may apply it. Do it like you did earlier. Remember, do not apply the paint heavily to prevent hiding the natural texture of the surface. Allow it to dry for 1 day and cure for 30 days. 

  1. Applying Elastomeric Paint

To keep your stucco new-looking for years, you may apply resilient elastomeric paint. It will keep the surface protected from moisture and scratches.

Make sure that you are doing things properly and using the correct materials for a home project like this. If you do, it will make sure that your stucco will stand the weather and won’t need repainting for several years. It will keep making your house look pretty for a long time. 

Basic Facts About Stucco

Stucco stone

Carca Stucco is a product of the volcanic ash and sediment that were formed when the magma from the Earth’s crust flowed down. The carca igneous sediment or quartz is a part of the deposits that are formed in basins after this process. The lava or mud in the form of the islands, rocks and soil had been removed from the ground and it flows down to form the floors of the earth.

The development of the Stucco goes on. It is generally known as the Volcano ash or the volcanic rock. However, there are other names for this stone. The lava that was ejected from the Earth’s surface when it erupted will be the island rocks, the woody plants and soil, soft soils and stucco is one of the parts of it.

The production of Carca Stucco is further described as the means by which this volcanic ash and sand can be used to make the Stone. In the process of making Stucco, the volcanic rock has been created by the lava in which the molten rock cools down. This process is the reason why most stucco materials that have been made were found in the ancient tombs, in which it had been covered with the lava.

The result of this process is that the lava forms a sheet that stretches to form the island or feature. The lava is placed in the center of the Island.

The most basic stucco materials include Stucco boards, Base, Precast Concrete and Lime. There are also a number of color, pattern and design techniques that are used in building this type of stucco. The images that are painted on the Stucco boards are mostly seen on the Stucco that is used to build large-scale structures. Most of the traditional materials used in the Stucco are the Carca Igneous Sediment, Charcoal, Wood, Bauxite, Shells, Lignite and Sand.

While the traditional methods used to make the Stucco are still in use, the method of creating precast stucco is being popularized by many manufacturers. Most of the manufacturers choose the precast stucco which can be used for both residential and commercial construction.

The Carca Igneous Sediment is also used in the construction of precast concrete. The Precast Concrete has the capacity to withstand extreme heat and coldness and is also resistant to the corrosive effects of water. It can be installed without any fear of settling because the Precast Concrete can be flexible. It is also very durable, but it is weather resistant.

The Stucco that can be used for the Stucco boards is the Bauxite. The bauxite can be embedded with some sawdust to preserve its shine. The bauxite also helps the base of the precast Concrete because it helps to create a porous and leak-proof layer that prevents the materials to slip and slide.

The Lime is a component of the Stucco that helps in reducing the construction costs. When a Stucco panel is being made it should be coated with Polyurethane. This helps to reduce the costs because it is less expensive to use the polyurethane as it can be done by a fast-drying coat of Polyurethane after the Stucco panel is completed.

The Polyurethane is made up of the lime, and it has a longer drying time, which will also help in preventing the appearance of the Stucco to fade. This will help in making sure that the Stucco isas durable as it needs to be. for several years.

The Precast Concrete that has the Stucco can be interlocked to help in preserving the texture of the Stucco. After the Stucco is completed, the precast Concrete is then interlocked to serve as a lubricant. It helps in allowing the Stucco to smoothly slide in the concrete while it dries.

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